REFERENSI FLU BABI – SWINE FLU : PANDEMIC ATTACK

  1. ^ Heinen P. (15 September 2003). “Swine influenza: a zoonosis“. Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow. http://www.vetscite.org/publish/articles/000041/print.html. “Influenza B and C viruses are almost exclusively isolated from man, although influenza C virus has also been isolated from pigs and influenza B has recently been isolated from seals.”. 
  2. ^ Cuevas Mayra, Curley Ann, Hellerman Caleb, Quijano Elaine, Candiotti Susan (25 April 2009). “More cases of swine flu reported; WHO warns of health emergency”. http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/04/25/swine.flu/index.html. 
  3. ^ “World Health Organization: Swine flu could spread globally”. CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/04/25/swine.flu/index.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-25. 
  4. ^ a b c “Swine Influenza”. Swine Diseases (Chest). Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine. http://www.vetmed.iastate.edu/departments/vdpam/swine/diseases/chest/swineinfluenza/. 
  5. ^ eurekalert Tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology – Novel H3N1 Swine Influenza Virus Identified in Pigs in Korea
  6. ^ PNAS Published online before print December 18, 2007, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0710286104 PNAS December 26, 2007 vol. 104 no. 52 20949-20954
  7. ^ Genetic evolution of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses in China from 1970 to 2006“. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46 (3): 1067. March 2008. doi:10.1128/JCM.01257-07. http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/46/3/1067?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=phylogenetic&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=230&resourcetype=HWFIG. 
  8. ^ “Bird flu and pandemic influenza: what are the risks?”. UK Department of Health. http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Aboutus/MinistersandDepartmentLeaders/ChiefMedicalOfficer/Features/DH_4102997. 
  9. ^ Genetic analysis of human H2N2 and early H3N2 influenza viruses, 1957–1972: evidence for genetic divergence and multiple reassortment events“. ScienceDirect. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WXR-4D67B89-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=9fd281ee498caee256bc5bf8e3f52970. 
  10. ^ “Economic impact of avian flu”. The World Bank. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/EXTEAPREGTOPHEANUT/0,,contentMDK:20713527~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:503048,00.html. 
  11. ^ WHO (October 28, 2005). “H5N1 avian influenza: timeline” (PDF). http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/Timeline_28_10a.pdf. 
  12. ^ “Indonesian pigs have avian flu virus; bird cases double in China”. CIDRAP. 27 May 2005. http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/avianflu/news/may2705avflu.html. 
  13. ^ . 31 March 2009. http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/avianflu/news/mar3109swine-jw.html.  report on Pigs as carriers
  14. ^ Pandemics and Pandemic Threats since 1900. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
  15. ^ Taubenberger JK, Morens DM (January 2006). “1918 Influenza: the mother of all pandemics“. Emerg Infect Dis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)) 12 (1). http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol12no01/05-0979.htm. 
  16. ^ a b “The sky is falling: an analysis of the swine flu affair of 1976”. Haverford.edu. http://www.haverford.edu/biology/edwards/disease/viral_essays/warnervirus.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-25. [dubious ]
  17. ^ “Influenza / Flu Vaccine”. University of Illinois at Springfield. http://www.uis.edu/healthservices/immunizations/influenzavaccine.html. Retrieved on 26 April 2009. 
  18. Bergmann, M., Garcia-Sastre, A., Carnero, E., Pehamberger, H., Wolff, K., Palese, P. and Muster, T. (2000) Influenza virus NS1 protein counteracts PKR-mediated inhibition of replication. J. Virol., 74, 6203-6206.
  19. Brown, I.H., Done, S.H., Spencer, Y.I., Cooley, W.A., Harris, P.A. and Alexander, D.J. (1993) Pathogenicity of a swine influenza H1N1 virus antigenically distinguishable from classical and European strains. Vet. Rec., 132(24), 598-602.
  20. Brown, I.H., Harris, P.A., McCauley, J.W. and Alexander, D.J. (1998) Multiple genetic reassortment of avian and human influenza A viruses in European pigs, resulting in the emergence of an H1N2 virus of novel genotype. J. Gen. Virol., 79, 2947-2955.
  21. Butler, J.E. (1998) Immunoglobulin diversity, B-cell and antibody repertoire development in large farm animals. Rev. Sci. Tech., 17, 43-70.
  22. Castrucci, M.R., Donatelli, I., Sidoli, L., Barigazzi, G., Kawaoka, Y. and Webster, R.G. (1993) Genetic reassortment between avian and human influenza A viruses in Italian pigs. Virology, 193, 503-506.
  23. Claas, E.C., Kawaoka, Y., de Jong, J.C., Masurel, N. and Webster, R.G. (1994) Infection of children with avian-human reassortant influenza virus from pigs in Europe. Virology 1994, 204(1), 453-457.
  24. Claas, E.C., Osterhaus, A.D., van Beek, R., De Jong, J.C., Rimmelzwaan, G.F., Senne, D.A., Krauss, S., Shortridge, K.F. and Webster, R.G. (1998) Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Lancet, 351(9101), 472-477.
  25. Daniele, R.P. (1990) Immunoglobulin secretion in the airways. Annu. Rev. Physiol., 52, 177-195.
  26. de Jong, J.C., Claas, E.C., Osterhaus, A.D., Webster, R.G. and Lim, W.L. (1997) A pandemic warning? Nature, 389, 554.
  27. de Jong, J.C., van Nieuwstadt, A.P., Kimman, T.G., Loeffen, W.L., Bestebroer, T.M., Bijlsma, K., Verweij, C., Osterhaus, A.D. and Claas, E.C. (1999) Antigenic drift in swine influenza H3 haemagglutinins with implications for vaccination policy. Vaccine, 17, 1321-1328.
  28. Done, S.H. and Brown, I.H. (1999) Swine influenza viruses in Europe. In: Allen D. Leman Swine Conference: Track V-Disease, 255-263.
  29. Done, S.H., Spencer, Y.I., Brown, I.H., Higgins, R. and Hannam, D.A. (1994) Natural swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Eng/195852/92) infections in pigs in the UK: Morphology, immunocytochemistry and aging of lesions. Proc. Int. Congr. Pig Vet. Soc., 13, 103.
  30. Easterday, B.C. (1975) Animal Influenza. In: The influenza viruses and influenza (Ed. Kilbourne, E.D.) Academic Press, Orlando. 449-481.
  31. Easterday, B.C. and Van Reeth, K. Swine influenza. In: Diseases of swine Iowa state University Press, Iowa.
  32. Fox, J.P., Cooney, M.K., Hall, C.E. and Foy, H.M. (1982) Influenzavirus infections in Seattle families, 1975-1979. II. Pattern of infection in invaded households and relation of age and prior antibody to occurrence of infection and related illness. Am. J. Epidemiol., 116, 228-242.
  33. Goldfield, M., Bartley, J.D., Pizzuti, W., Black, H.C., Altman, R. and Halperin, W.E. (1977) Influenza in New Jersey in 1976: isolations of influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus at Fort Dix. J. Infect. Dis., 136 Suppl, S347-355.
  34. Guo, Y.J., Krauss, S., Senne, D.A., Mo, I.P., Lo, K.S., Xiong, X.P., Norwood, M., Shortridge, K.F., Webster, R.G. and Guan, Y. (2000) Characterization of the pathogenicity of members of the newly established H9N2 influenza virus lineages in Asia. Virology, 267, 279-288.
  35. Ito, T., Couceiro, J.N., Kelm, S., Baum, L.G., Krauss, S., Castrucci, M.R., Donatelli, I., Kida, H., Paulson, J.C., Webster, R.G. and Kawaoka, Y. (1998) Molecular basis for the generation in pigs of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. J. Virol., 72, 7367-7373.
  36. Kaplan, M.M. and Webster, R.G. (1977) The epidemiology of influenza. Sci. Am., 237, 88-106.
  37. Kay, R.M., Done, S.H. and Paton, D.J. (1994) Effect of sequential porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and swine influenza on the growth and performance of finishing pigs. Vet. Rec., 135, 199-204.
  38. Kendal, A.P., Goldfield, M., Noble, G.R. and Dowdle, W.R. (1977) Identification and preliminary antigenic analysis of swine influenza- like viruses isolated during an influenza outbreak at Fort Dix, New Jersey. J. Infect. Dis., 136 Suppl, S381-385.
  39. Lamb, R.A. and Krug, R.M. (1996) Orthomyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Fields Virology (Ed. Fields, B.N., Knipe, D.M., Howley, P.M.) Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia. 1353-1445.
  40. Loeffen, W.L., Kamp, E.M., Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N., van Nieuwstadt, A.P., Bongers, J.H., Hunneman, W.A., Elbers, A.R., Baars, J., Nell, T. and van Zijderveld, F.G. (1999) Survey of infectious agents involved in acute respiratory disease in finishing pigs. Vet. Rec., 145, 123-129.
  41. Matrosovich, M., Tuzikov, A., Bovin, N., Gambaryan, A., Klimov, A., Castrucci, M.R., Donatelli, I. and Kawaoka, Y. (2000) Early alterations of the receptor-binding properties of H1, H2, and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins after their introduction into mammals. J. Virol., 74, 8502-8512.
  42. McMichael, A.J., Gotch, F.M., Dongworth, D.W., Clark, A. and Potter, C.W. (1983) Declining T-cell immunity to influenza, 1977-82. Lancet, 2, 762-764.
  43. Mozdzanowska, K., Maiese, K., Furchner, M. and Gerhard, W. (1999) Treatment of influenza virus-infected SCID mice with nonneutralizing antibodies specific for the transmembrane proteins matrix 2 and neuraminidase reduces the pulmonary virus titer but fails to clear the infection. Virology, 254, 138-146.
  44. Murphy, B.R. and Webster, R.G. (1996) Orthomyxoviruses. In: Fields Virology (Ed. B. N. Fields, K., D.M., Howley, P.M.) Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia. 1353-1445.
  45. Olsen, G.W., Burris, J.M., Burlew, M.M., Steinberg, M.E., Patz, N.V., Stoltzfus, J.A. and Mandel, J.H. (1998) Absenteeism among employees who participated in a workplace influenza immunization program. J. Occup. Environ. Med., 40, 311-316.
  46. Saalmuller, A. (1998) Antigen-specific immune response of porcine T lymphocytes to various pathogens. Rev. Sci. Tech., 17, 71-83.
  47. Schnurrenberger, P.R., Woods, G.T. and Martin, R.J. (1970) Serologic evidence of human infection with swine influenza virus. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 102, 356-361.
  48. Scholtissek, C., Burger, H., Kistner, O. and Shortridge, K.F. (1985) The nucleoprotein as a possible major factor in determining host specificity of influenza H3N2 viruses. Virology, 147, 287-294.
  49. Scholtissek, C., Hinshaw V.S. and Olsen C.W. (1998) Influenza in pigs and their role as the intermediate host. In: Textbook of influenza (Ed. Nicholson, K.G., Webster, R.G., Hay, A.J.) Blackwell Science, Oxford. 137-145.
  50. Shope, R.E. (1931) Swine influenza. III. Filtration experiments and aetiology. J. Exp. Med., 54, 373-38
  51. Smith, W., Andrewes, C.H., and Laidlaw P.P. (1993) A virus obtained from influenza patients. Lancet, 2, 66-68.
  52. Subbarao, K., Klimov, A., Katz, J., Regnery, H., Lim, W., Hall, H., Perdue, M., Swayne, D., Bender, C., Huang, J., Hemphill, M., Rowe, T., Shaw, M., Xu, X., Fukuda, K. and Cox, N. (1998) Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness. Science, 279, 393-396.
  53. Van Reeth, K., Labarque, G., Nauwynck, H. and Pensaert, M. (1999) Differential production of proinflammatory cytokines in the pig lung during different respiratory virus infections: correlations with pathogenicity. Res. Vet. Sci., 67, 47-52.
  54. Van Reeth, K., Brown, I.H. and Pensaert, M. (2000) Isolations of H1N2 influenza A virus from pigs in Belgium. Vet. Rec., 146, 588-589.
  55. Voeten, J.T., Bestebroer, T.M., Nieuwkoop, N.J., Fouchier, R.A., Osterhaus, A.D. and Rimmelzwaan, G.F. (2000) Antigenic drift in the influenza A virus (H3N2) nucleoprotein and escape from recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Virol., 74, 6800-6807.
  56. Wang, X., Li, M., Zheng, H., Muster, T., Palese, P., Beg, A.A. and Garcia-Sastre, A. (2000) Influenza A virus NS1 protein prevents activation of NF-kappaB and induction of alpha/beta interferon. J. Virol., 74, 11566-11573.
  57. Zhou, N.N., Senne, D.A., Landgraf, J.S., Swenson, S.L., Erickson, G., Rossow, K., Liu, L., Yoon, K., Krauss, S. and Webster, R.G. (1999) Genetic reassortment of avian, swine, and human influenza A viruses in American pigs. J. Virol., 73, 8851-8856.^ “DA probes reported swine flu ‘outbreak’ in N. Ecija”. Gmanews.tv. http://www.gmanews.tv/story/56805/DA-probes-reported-swine-flu-outbreak-in-N-Ecija. Retrieved on 2009-04-25. 
  58. ^ “Gov’t declares hog cholera alert in Luzon”. Gmanews.tv. http://www.gmanews.tv/story/53014/Govt-declares-hog-cholera-alert-in-Luzon. Retrieved on 2009-04-25. 
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  60. ^ Stobbe Mike (April 21, 2009). “Officials alert doctors after 2 California children infected with unusual swine flu”. Associated Press. http://www.startribune.com/lifestyle/health/43357097.html?elr=KArks7PYDiaK7DUvDE7aL_V_BD77:DiiUiacyKUUr. Retrieved on April 24, 2009. 
  61. ^ Brown David (22 April 2009). “New Strain of Swine Flu Investigated: Two Children in San Diego Area Had No Contact With Pigs”. Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/21/AR2009042103694.html. Retrieved on April 24, 2009. 
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  66. ^ “Swine Influenza Live Webcast”. Government of Nova Scotia. 2009-04-26. http://gov.ns.ca/stayinformed/respiratoryillness.asp. 
  67. ^ “Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children — Southern California, March–April 2009”. MMWR. Centers for Disease Control. 22 April 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5815a5.htm. 
  68. ^ “Swine flu emergency caused by new variant of old bug”. Bloomberg. 2009-04-26. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=aD0VK0_oNmw4. 
  69. ^ National Hog Farmer article Swine Flu Virus Turns Endemic published September 15, 2007
  70. ^ livestock.novartis.com Custom Vaccines: Swine
  71. ^ pubmedcentral.nih.gov Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research (2007 July; 71(3): 201–206.) article Serologic and genetic characterization of North American H3N2 swine influenza A viruses by Marie René Gramer, Jee Hoon Lee, Young Ki Choi, Sagar M. Goyal, and Han Soo Joo
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  73. ^ “Update: Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infections — California and Texas, April 2009”. CDC MMWR. 2009-04-24. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm58d0424a1.htm. 
  74. ^ Steven Reinberg (2009-04-24). “Swine Flu Cases Now Total 7: CDC”. ABC News. http://www.abcnews.go.com/Health/Healthday/story?id=7415611&page=1. 
  75. ^ Rob Stein (2009-04-23). “In California and Texas, 5 New Swine Flu Cases”. Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/23/AR2009042304116.html. 
  76. ^ “CDC Briefing on Public Health Investigation of Human Cases of Swine Influenza”. CDC online newsroom. 2009-04-23. http://www.cdc.gov/media/transcripts/2009/t090423.htm. 
  77. 1. Bergmann, M., Garcia-Sastre, A., Carnero, E., Pehamberger, H., Wolff, K., Palese, P. and Muster, T. (2000) Influenza virus NS1 protein counteracts PKR-mediated inhibition of replication. J. Virol., 74, 6203-6206.
  78. 2. Brown, I.H., Done, S.H., Spencer, Y.I., Cooley, W.A., Harris, P.A. and Alexander, D.J. (1993) Pathogenicity of a swine influenza H1N1 virus antigenically distinguishable from classical and European strains. Vet. Rec., 132(24), 598-602.
  79. 3. Brown, I.H., Harris, P.A., McCauley, J.W. and Alexander, D.J. (1998) Multiple genetic reassortment of avian and human influenza A viruses in European pigs, resulting in the emergence of an H1N2 virus of novel genotype. J. Gen. Virol., 79, 2947-2955.
  80. 4. Butler, J.E. (1998) Immunoglobulin diversity, B-cell and antibody repertoire development in large farm animals. Rev. Sci. Tech., 17, 43-70.
  81. 5. Castrucci, M.R., Donatelli, I., Sidoli, L., Barigazzi, G., Kawaoka, Y. and Webster, R.G. (1993) Genetic reassortment between avian and human influenza A viruses in Italian pigs. Virology, 193, 503-506.
  82. 6. Claas, E.C., Kawaoka, Y., de Jong, J.C., Masurel, N. and Webster, R.G. (1994) Infection of children with avian-human reassortant influenza virus from pigs in Europe. Virology 1994, 204(1), 453-457.
  83. 7. Claas, E.C., Osterhaus, A.D., van Beek, R., De Jong, J.C., Rimmelzwaan, G.F., Senne, D.A., Krauss, S., Shortridge, K.F. and Webster, R.G. (1998) Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Lancet, 351(9101), 472-477.
  84. 8. Daniele, R.P. (1990) Immunoglobulin secretion in the airways. Annu. Rev. Physiol., 52, 177-195.
  85. 9. de Jong, J.C., Claas, E.C., Osterhaus, A.D., Webster, R.G. and Lim, W.L. (1997) A pandemic warning? Nature, 389, 554.
  86. 10. de Jong, J.C., van Nieuwstadt, A.P., Kimman, T.G., Loeffen, W.L., Bestebroer, T.M., Bijlsma, K., Verweij, C., Osterhaus, A.D. and Claas, E.C. (1999) Antigenic drift in swine influenza H3 haemagglutinins with implications for vaccination policy. Vaccine, 17, 1321-1328.
  87. Done, S.H. and Brown, I.H. (1999) Swine influenza viruses in Europe. In: Allen D. Leman Swine Conference: Track V-Disease, 255-263.
  88. Done, S.H., Spencer, Y.I., Brown, I.H., Higgins, R. and Hannam, D.A. (1994) Natural swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Eng/195852/92) infections in pigs in the UK: Morphology, immunocytochemistry and aging of lesions. Proc. Int. Congr. Pig Vet. Soc., 13, 103.
  89. Easterday, B.C. (1975) Animal Influenza. In: The influenza viruses and influenza (Ed. Kilbourne, E.D.) Academic Press, Orlando. 449-481.
  90. Easterday, B.C. and Van Reeth, K. Swine influenza. In: Diseases of swine Iowa state University Press, Iowa.
  91. Fox, J.P., Cooney, M.K., Hall, C.E. and Foy, H.M. (1982) Influenzavirus infections in Seattle families, 1975-1979. II. Pattern of infection in invaded households and relation of age and prior antibody to occurrence of infection and related illness. Am. J. Epidemiol., 116, 228-242.
  92. Goldfield, M., Bartley, J.D., Pizzuti, W., Black, H.C., Altman, R. and Halperin, W.E. (1977) Influenza in New Jersey in 1976: isolations of influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus at Fort Dix. J. Infect. Dis., 136 Suppl, S347-355.
  93. Guo, Y.J., Krauss, S., Senne, D.A., Mo, I.P., Lo, K.S., Xiong, X.P., Norwood, M., Shortridge, K.F., Webster, R.G. and Guan, Y. (2000) Characterization of the pathogenicity of members of the newly established H9N2 influenza virus lineages in Asia. Virology, 267, 279-288.
  94. Ito, T., Couceiro, J.N., Kelm, S., Baum, L.G., Krauss, S., Castrucci, M.R., Donatelli, I., Kida, H., Paulson, J.C., Webster, R.G. and Kawaoka, Y. (1998) Molecular basis for the generation in pigs of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. J. Virol., 72, 7367-7373.
  95. Kaplan, M.M. and Webster, R.G. (1977) The epidemiology of influenza. Sci. Am., 237, 88-106.
  96. Kay, R.M., Done, S.H. and Paton, D.J. (1994) Effect of sequential porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and swine influenza on the growth and performance of finishing pigs. Vet. Rec., 135, 199-204.
  97. Kendal, A.P., Goldfield, M., Noble, G.R. and Dowdle, W.R. (1977) Identification and preliminary antigenic analysis of swine influenza- like viruses isolated during an influenza outbreak at Fort Dix, New Jersey. J. Infect. Dis., 136 Suppl, S381-385.
  98. Lamb, R.A. and Krug, R.M. (1996) Orthomyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Fields Virology (Ed. Fields, B.N., Knipe, D.M., Howley, P.M.) Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia. 1353-1445.
  99. Loeffen, W.L., Kamp, E.M., Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N., van Nieuwstadt, A.P., Bongers, J.H., Hunneman, W.A., Elbers, A.R., Baars, J., Nell, T. and van Zijderveld, F.G. (1999) Survey of infectious agents involved in acute respiratory disease in finishing pigs. Vet. Rec., 145, 123-129.
  100. Matrosovich, M., Tuzikov, A., Bovin, N., Gambaryan, A., Klimov, A., Castrucci, M.R., Donatelli, I. and Kawaoka, Y. (2000) Early alterations of the receptor-binding properties of H1, H2, and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins after their introduction into mammals. J. Virol., 74, 8502-8512.
  101. McMichael, A.J., Gotch, F.M., Dongworth, D.W., Clark, A. and Potter, C.W. (1983) Declining T-cell immunity to influenza, 1977-82. Lancet, 2, 762-764.
  102. Mozdzanowska, K., Maiese, K., Furchner, M. and Gerhard, W. (1999) Treatment of influenza virus-infected SCID mice with nonneutralizing antibodies specific for the transmembrane proteins matrix 2 and neuraminidase reduces the pulmonary virus titer but fails to clear the infection. Virology, 254, 138-146.
  103. Murphy, B.R. and Webster, R.G. (1996) Orthomyxoviruses. In: Fields Virology (Ed. B. N. Fields, K., D.M., Howley, P.M.) Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia. 1353-1445.
  104. Olsen, G.W., Burris, J.M., Burlew, M.M., Steinberg, M.E., Patz, N.V., Stoltzfus, J.A. and Mandel, J.H. (1998) Absenteeism among employees who participated in a workplace influenza immunization program. J. Occup. Environ. Med., 40, 311-316.
  105. Saalmuller, A. (1998) Antigen-specific immune response of porcine T lymphocytes to various pathogens. Rev. Sci. Tech., 17, 71-83.
  106. Schnurrenberger, P.R., Woods, G.T. and Martin, R.J. (1970) Serologic evidence of human infection with swine influenza virus. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 102, 356-361.
  107. Scholtissek, C., Burger, H., Kistner, O. and Shortridge, K.F. (1985) The nucleoprotein as a possible major factor in determining host specificity of influenza H3N2 viruses. Virology, 147, 287-294.
  108. Scholtissek, C., Hinshaw V.S. and Olsen C.W. (1998) Influenza in pigs and their role as the intermediate host. In: Textbook of influenza (Ed. Nicholson, K.G., Webster, R.G., Hay, A.J.) Blackwell Science, Oxford. 137-145.
  109. 33. Shope, R.E. (1931) Swine influenza. III. Filtration experiments and aetiology. J. Exp. Med., 54, 373-380.
  110. 34. Smith, W., Andrewes, C.H., and Laidlaw P.P. (1993) A virus obtained from influenza patients. Lancet, 2, 66-68.
  111. 35. Subbarao, K., Klimov, A., Katz, J., Regnery, H., Lim, W., Hall, H., Perdue, M., Swayne, D., Bender, C., Huang, J., Hemphill, M., Rowe, T., Shaw, M., Xu, X., Fukuda, K. and Cox, N. (1998) Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness. Science, 279, 393-396.
  112. Van Reeth, K., Labarque, G., Nauwynck, H. and Pensaert, M. (1999) Differential production of proinflammatory cytokines in the pig lung during different respiratory virus infections: correlations with pathogenicity. Res. Vet. Sci., 67, 47-52.
  113. Van Reeth, K., Brown, I.H. and Pensaert, M. (2000) Isolations of H1N2 influenza A virus from pigs in Belgium. Vet. Rec., 146, 588-589.
  114. Voeten, J.T., Bestebroer, T.M., Nieuwkoop, N.J., Fouchier, R.A., Osterhaus, A.D. and Rimmelzwaan, G.F. (2000) Antigenic drift in the influenza A virus (H3N2) nucleoprotein and escape from recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Virol., 74, 6800-6807.
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