Antigenic and genomic analyses of H1N1

Antigenic analysis of influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates by hemagglutination inhibition reactions with postinfection ferret sera and mouse monoclonal antibodies showed that, although the predominant virus in 1978 to 1979 had an A/Brazil/11/78-like hemagglutinin, several new antigenic variants could be detected which differed from those identified in 1977 to 1978. Most of the variants showed very minor changes and did not achieve epidemiological significance. Genome analysis by ribonucleic acid-ribonucleic acid hybridization, and supported by oligonucleotide mapping, indicated that nonrecombinant H1N1 viruses cocirculated in the world with recombinant H1N1 viruses, identified in 1978 to 1979. The results of our antigenic analysis and genomic analysis, in conjunction with genomic analysis by other authors, showed that recombinants with A/USSR/90/77-like and A/Brazil/11/78-like hemagglutinin had different genome compositions, indicating that H3N2 virus recombined separately with these different antigenic variants. Prevalence of the nonrecombinant and recombinant H1N1 viruses varied between regions of the world, and influenza A(H1N1) virus with a genotype almost identical to that of nonrecombinant A/Brazil/11/78 virus reappeared as a cause of local outbreaks in the United States in 1980 despite the predominance of recombinant H1N1 strains in the preceding winter.

 

 

Webster RG, Kendal AP, Gerhard W. Analysis of antigenic drift in recently isolated influenza A (H1N1) viruses using monoclonal antibody preparations. Virology. 1979 Jul 15;96(1):258–264. [PubMed]
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  • Young JF, Palese P. Evolution of human influenza A viruses in nature: recombination contributes to genetic variation of H1N1 strains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Dec;76(12):6547–6551. [PubMed]
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  • Kendal AP, Joseph JM, Kobayashi G, Nelson D, Reyes CR, Ross MR, Sarandria JL, White R, Woodall DF, Noble GR, Dowdle WR. Laboratory-based surveillance of influenza virus in the United States during the winter of 1977-1978. I. Periods of prevalence of H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A strains, their relative rates of isolation in different age groups, and detection of antigenic variants. Am J Epidemiol. 1979 Oct;110(4):449–461. [PubMed]
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  • Kendal AP, Noble GR, Skehel JJ, Dowdle WR. Antigenic similarity of influenza A (H1N1) viruses from epidemics in 1977–1978 to “Scandinavian” strains isolated in epidemics of 1950–1951. Virology. 1978 Sep;89(2):632–636. [PubMed]
  • Nakajima S, Nakajima K, Takeuchi Y, Sugiura A. Influenza surveillance based on oligonculeotide mapping of RNA of H1N1 viruses prevalent in Japan, 1978-1979. J Infect Dis. 1980 Oct;142(4):492–502. [PubMed]
  • Palese P, Schulman JL. Differences in RNA patterns of influenza A viruses. J Virol. 1976 Mar;17(3):876–884. [PubMed]
  • Pedersen FS, Haseltine WA. A micromethod for detailed characterization of high molecular weight RNA. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):680–687. [PubMed]
  • Scholtissek C, Harms E, Rohde W, Orlich M, Rott R. Correlation between RNA fragments of fowl plague virus and their corresponding gene functions. Virology. 1976 Oct 15;74(2):332–344. [PubMed]
  • Scholtissek C, von Hoyningen V, Rott R. Genetic relatedness between the new 1977 epidemic strains (H1N1) of influenza and human influenza strains isolated between 1947 and 1957 (H1N1). Virology. 1978 Sep;89(2):613–617. [PubMed]
  • Webster RG, Kendal AP, Gerhard W. Analysis of antigenic drift in recently isolated influenza A (H1N1) viruses using monoclonal antibody preparations. Virology. 1979 Jul 15;96(1):258–264. [PubMed]
  • Yamane N, Arikawa J, Odagiri T, Sukeno N, Ishida N. Isolation of three different influenza A viruses from an individual after probable double infection with H3N2 and H1N1 viruses. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1978 31(5-6):431–434.Oct–Dec; [PubMed]
  • Young JF, Palese P. Evolution of human influenza A viruses in nature: recombination contributes to genetic variation of H1N1 strains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Dec;76(12):6547–6551. [PubMed]

 

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